# Module 2: Introductory Statistics with R or SPSS. Basics of Statistical Inference

## Type of course

This is an online course. Classes will be streamed. The recordings stay available until the end of academic year 2020-2021.

## Dates

November 12, 17 and 24, December 1, 8 and 15, 2020, from 5.30 pm till 9.30 pm. (Please note that the first session is on a Thursday.)
Please note: The deadline for UGent PhD students who want a refund to open a dossier on the DS website (Application for Recognition) is October 12, 2020

## Venue

Faculty of Science, Site Sterre, Krijgslaan 281, building S5, Ghent, PC hybride 1.1 (=Grace Hopper), first floor. (Soleway route description)

## Description

This course aims to provide insight into basic statistical concepts with emphasis on practical applications. Mathematical formulae will be kept to a minimum. The theory and the methods of analysis will be extensively illustrated with examples relating to a wide variety of different fields. To emphasize the practical approach in this course all classes will take place in a pc room.

The first sessions will be dedicated to getting to know the software packages SPSS and R. Participants are encouraged to participate in both parts.

We start with concise graphical and numerical descriptions of data obtained from observational or experimental studies. The most common and frequently used probability distributions of discrete and continuous variables will be presented. Statistical inference draws conclusions about a population based on sampled data. Chance variations are taken into account such that a level of confidence is attached to these conclusions.

We present the reasoning behind significance tests for the comparison of observed data with a hypothesis, the validity of which we want to assess. We apply this procedure to data obtained either from one or from two populations.

The correct use of the t-test will be discussed. Nonparametric methods are considered as a possible alternative in case the requirements of the t-test are not met.

We cover the basic concepts of hypothesis testing for categorical data, including the chi-square test.

Quite often the relationship between two variables, where the outcome of one variable is seen as depending on the value of the other, is the focus of scientific interest.

We will give an introduction to linear regression analysis, where a regression line based on observations obtained in a sample describes this relation.

Hands-on exercises are worked out behind the PC using the SPSS software. If preferred, participants can use R.

## Target audience

This course will benefit professionals and investigators from diverse areas, research scientists, clinical research associates, investing in data handling and wishing to acquire insight into basic statistical methods or to refresh their knowledge and practice of statistics.

## Exam

Participants can, if they wish, take part in an exam. Upon succeeding in this test a certificate from Ghent University will be issued.
Please note: For UGent PhD students it is no longer necessary to participate/succeed in this exam to be able to incorporate the course in the DTP.

## Incorporation in DTP and reimbursement from DS for UGent PhD students

As a UGent PhD student, to be able to incorporate this 'specialist course' in your Doctoral Training Program (DTP) and get a reimbursement of the registration fee from your Doctoral School (DS) you need to follow strict rules: please take the necessary action in time. The deadline to open a dossier on the DS website (Application for Recognition) for this course is October 12, 2020. Please note that opening a dossier does not mean that you are enrolled. You still need to enrol via the registration form on this site.

## Course prerequisites

The course is open to all. It is necessary to have an understanding of basic algebra (basic rules, solving equations, ...), exponents and square roots.

## Teacher

Dr. Els Adriaens (Adriaens Consulting bvba) studied biology, obtained a PhD in pharmaceutical sciences and a Master in Statistical Data Analysis at Ghent University.

She is consultant in statistical data analysis specialized in the field of the development and validation of alternatives to laboratory animals.

## Course material

Copies of slides.

Recommended but optional handbook:
The examples used in this book are restricted to the field of bioscience. The book is therefore recommended if you have a background in a related research area, such as (veterinary) medicine, biotechnology, biology, pharmacy, a.s.o.

## Book recommendations

A recommended handbook for further study is "Fundamentals of Biostatistics", Bernard Rosner, 8th ed. (2015), Thomson Brooks/Cole (ISBN 978-1305268920). Those who wish to explore statistics further after the course can order it online or at their local book store. Please note that you do not need a copy of this book to follow the course.

## Fees

A different price applies, depending on your main type of employment.

EmploymentModule 2Exam
Industry/Private sector1 960 30
Non-profit, government, university outside AUGent2 400 30
(Doctoral)student outside AUGent2 280 30

1 If three or more employees from the same company enrol simultaneously for this course a reduction of 10% on the module price is taken into account.

2 AUGent-staff and AUGent doctoral students who pay through use of an SAP internal order/invoice can participate at these .