Term
The Proportion and the Percentage 

Definition
Two of the most popular and useful methods of standardizing for size and comparing distributions are _____ and ____. 


Term

Definition
The _____ compares the number of cases in a given category with the total size of the distribution. 


Term

Definition
We can convert any frequency (f) into a proportion (P) by doing what? 


Term

Definition
We can convert any frequency (f) into a proportion (P). Therefore 15 out of 50 girls who found an alternative toy can be expressed as the following proportion ______. 


Term

Definition
Despite the usefulness of the proportion, many people prefer to indicate the relative seize of a series of numbers in terms of the ______. 


Term

Definition
Despite the usefulness of the proportion, many people prefer to indicate the relative seize of a series of numbers in terms of the percentage. To calculate a percentage, we simply multiply any given proportion by ____. 


Term

Definition
Despite the usefulness of the proportion, many people prefer to indicate the relative seize of a series of numbers in terms of the percentage. What would the percenatage formula look like? 


Term
Ordinal and Interval categories 

Definition
_____ and ____ categories are always arranged in order, usually from their highest to lowest values but sometimes from their lowest to highest values. 


Term

Definition
Disturbing the order of ordinal and interval categories reduces the _____ of the researcher's findings. 


Term

Definition
Each category or group in a grouped distribution is known as a _______, whose size is determined by the number of score values it contains. 


Term

Definition
The more meaningufl column, particularly if comparisons to other distributions are considered (such as the final examination scores during a different term with a different number of students), is the _____ column. 


Term

Definition
The more meaningufl column, particularly if comparisons to other distributions are considered (such as the final examination scores during a different term with a different number of students), is the percent column. This colomn is also called teh _______. 


Term

Definition
An important characteristic of any class interval is its ______, which we define as the middlemost score value in the class interval. 


Term
m = (lowest score value + highest score value)divided by 2
For example:
m = (48+52)/2 m = (100)/2 m = 50 

Definition
What is the formula for determing the midpoint of a class interval? 


Term
(1) It is preferable to make the size of class itervals a whole number rather than a decimal. This tends to simplify calculations in which size is involved.
(2) it is conventional to make th elowest score in a class interval some multiple of its size. Customarily, for example, exam scores are categorized as 9099, 8089, and so on, so that the lowest scores (for example, 80 and 90) are multiples of 10. 

Definition
After deciding on a number of class intervals, a researcher must then begin constructing the intervals themselves. Two basic guidelines help make this taks easier and should be followed whenver possible. What are they? 


Term
Cumulative frequencie (f) 

Definition
The total number of cases having any given score of a score that is lower. 


Term
frequency in that category to the total frequency for all categories below it. 

Definition
The cumulative frequency (cf) for any category (or class interval) is obtained by adding the ______ in that category to the ______ for all categories below it. 


Term

Definition
What is the formula for cumulative frequency? 


Term
A. presented separately for the categories of a second variable, such as gender, age, or race. 

Definition
A cross tabulation of serious illnesses is a table in which the distribution of illnesses is ______.
A. Presented separatley for the categories of a second variable, such as gender, age, or race
B. presented in a table
C. presented in a graph
D. presented in a pie chart 


Term

Definition
A table that presents the distribution frequencies and percents of one variable (usually the dependent variable) across the categories of one or more additional variables (usually the independent variable or variables) 


Term
There is a rule of thumb to guide our choice between row and column percentages: If the independent variable is on the rows, use row percents; if the independent variable is on the columns, use column percents. 

Definition
There is a rule of thumb to guide our choice between row and column percentages: If the independent variable is on the rows, use ___ percents; if the independent variable is on the columns, use ____ percents. 


Term

Definition
A circular graph whose pieces add up to 100%. 


Term

Definition
Pie charts are particularly useful for showing the differences in frequencies or percentages among categories of a ______level variable. 


Term

Definition
_____ can accommodate any number of categories at any level of measurement and, therefore, is far more widely used in social research to display frequency or percentage disritutions. 


Term

Definition
The bar graph is constructed following the standard arrangement: A horizonatl base line or _______ axis along which score values or categories are maked off. 


Term

Definition
The bar graph is constructed following the standard arrangement: A vertical line or _____ axis along the left side of the figure. 


Term

Definition
____ are typically used to display the frequency of percentage distribution of variables whose categories do not represent a smooth continuum, especially nominallevel variables. Because of the lack of continuity from category to category, the graph includes space between the bars to emphasize differentness, rather than continuity along a scale. 


Term

Definition
____ are used to display more continuous measures, especially at the interval level; the bars are jointed to emphasize continuity of the points along a scale. 


Term

Definition
Distribution folding the curve at the center creates two identical halves. 


Term

Definition
Distribution is skewed to the left because it has a much longer tail on the left than the right. 


Term

Definition
Distribution is skewed to the right. 

